Private supplementary tutoring, widely known as shadow education, has become a global phenomenon. It has a range of providers, including commercial companies, university students desiring extra pocket money, and regular school teachers who provide tutoring as a sideline activity.
This DFID policy paper investigates the causes and effects of corruption on the development process and proposes a holistic global strategy for combating corruption involving action in a number of area.
UK. Dept for International Development
Bergen, Utstein Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, 2001
The 2001 Global corruption report concentrates on events in the period July 2000 to June 2001. It is based on Transparency International's definition of corruption as the misuse of entrusted power for private gain.
Berlin, Transparency International (TI), 2001
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