Corruption: definitions and concepts
Corruption is seen as counter-productive to the needed economic and political reforms, accountability, transparency and good governance. This paper aims at classifying the various forms of corruption in order to operationalise the concept for analytical and practical purposes. First, different forms of corruption are outlined. Second, corruption is defined as a particular state-society relationship, and a distinction is made between political corruption and bureaucratic corruption. Following this, two more distinctions are added, namely "individual" and "collective" forms of corruption, and corruption as a mechanism of either "upward extraction" or "downward redistribution". This paper concludes with the argument that the fight against corruption has to be placed within a broader agenda of democratization.