Corruption in education is sector-wide. It may be found in all areas of educational planning and management – school financing, recruitment, promotion and appointment of teachers, building of schools, supply and distribution of equipment and textbooks, admission to universities, and so on.
In the efforts made to progress towards the EFA goals, educational incentives – e.g. school grants, scholarships, special allowances or subsidies, free textbooks or school meals – are regarded as key tools to reach the individuals, schools, and areas most in need.
Varieties of academic fraud include cheating in high-stakes examinations, plagiarism, credentials fraud, and misconduct in reform policies, as documented in IIEP’s publication 'Combating Academic Fraud: Towards a culture of integrity.'