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  • Accounatbility



    Accountability systems check that the rules have been properly complied with and make it possible to investigate and sanction potential misbehaviour. Schools are traditionally responsible for observing regulations and norms that are supposed to ensure good quality education, and more, generally speaking, educational systems are held responsible for the quality of their products, namely: students’ knowledge, skills, behaviour and performance.

  • Academic corruption


    Any prescribed action taken in connection with an examination or test that attempts to gain an unfair advantage. Beyond examination or test issues, it covers malpractices related to credentials, diplomas, research, academic journals and publications, admission to universities and accreditation fraud. Bias in the admissions or grading process; plagiarism.

  • Access to information


    The right by law – often through freedom of information legislation (acts or laws) – to access key facts and data from the government and any public body based on the notion that citizens should be able to obtain information that is in the possession of the state. Public access to information on resources allocated to schools.

  • Bribery


    Act of offering someone money, services or other valuables, in order to persuade that person to do something in return. Bribes can also be called kickbacks, baksheesh, payola, hush money, sweeteners, protection money, boodle, gratuity, etc. Bribery is widely criminalized through international and national laws. In particular, the bribing of foreign officials is outlawed by the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Bribes paid to be admitted into university.

  • Capture (or leakage)


    Illegal use of public resources and therefore lack of resources for the intended purpose. Capture of school funds at the local administrative level.

  • Code of conduct


    Set of written guidelines, produced by public authorities or professional organizations, which details the set of recognized ethical norms (or values) and professional standards of conduct to which all members of a profession must adhere. Codes aim to enhance the commitment, dedication, and efficiency of members of the teaching profession, and to provide self-disciplinary guidelines by establishing norms of professional conduct. Teacher codes of conduct.

  • Conflict of interest


    A situation where an individual or the entity for which they work, whether a government, business, media outlet or civil society organization, is confronted with having to choose between the duties and demands of their position and their own private interests. When a university professor sits in a selection jury and at the same time provides private tutoring lessons to candidates.

  • Corruption


    The abuse of entrusted power for private gain. Corruption can be classified as grand, petty or political, depending on the amounts of money lost and the sector where it occurs. Corruption in education can be defined as “the systematic use of public office for private benefit, whose impact is significant on the availability and quality of educational goods and services, and, as a consequence on access, quality or equity in education”.

  • Embezzlement


    When a person holding office in an institution, organization or company dishonestly and illegally appropriates, uses or traffics the funds and goods they have been entrusted with for personal enrichment or other activities. Educational funds used for political campaigns.

  • Ethics


    Based on core values and norms, a set of standards for conduct in government, companies and society that guide decisions, choices and actions. There is a relationship between ethics in education and ethical education: in order to create a favourable environment for the teaching of ethics and values, it is critical to ensure integrity and limit unethical behaviour within the educational sector.

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