Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable.
Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym
This resource guide is a joint effort of USAID's Office of Democracy and Governance (DG) and Office of Education, responding to the need to promote greater policy and program linkages between the Agency's democracy and governance and education sector.
USA. Agency for International Development
Washington, USAID, 2003
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