Diagnostic tools

Several tools are available to decision-makers for the measurement of corrupt practices within the education sector.

Integrity assessments

An integrity assessment maps the corruption risks within the education sector. The assessment exercise can encompass parts of the education system (e.g. primary, secondary or tertiary education) or the education system as a whole. To identify so-called red flags and corruption risks in the education sector, different domains of educational planning and management can be analysed. Read more 

Public expenditure tracking surveys

PETS study the flow of public funds and make it possible to determine whether resources reach their intended destination, or if there are leakages along the way. The scope of PETS can vary. Read more 

Quantitative service delivery surveys

QSDS or multi-purpose surveys are used to collect quantitative data on the efficiency of public spending and the different aspects of ‘frontline’ service delivery usually represented by schools in the education sector. Read more


Audits are used to objectively identify discrepancies between the desired and the actual state of a particular area. Audits can also be used to certify the validity of the information provided in various public accounting reports. They can be internal or external. Read more 

Citizen report card

Citizen report card is used to generate information on the quality and efficiency of the public service as perceived by users. This means of collecting information may be used to mobilize local communities in a participatory approach. Read more 

Lessons learned

Experience shows that audits, PETS, QSDS, or report cards can prove very useful to improve accountability within the sector and that they provide citizens with the necessary information to act in response to instances of corrupt practices. However, their success depends on:

  • Ownership of the survey process and its findings by public authorities
  • Wide dissemination of survey findings, in particular with the help of the media
  • Incorporation of these new tools into regular sector diagnostic methods

In the media


In the media

AI and cheating in education: How can we safeguard the integrity of exams?

By Dr Phillip Dawson, Dr Christina Wikstrom, Shivi Chandra - EduSkills OECD


In the media

Fake academic papers are on the rise: Why they’re a danger and how to stop them

By Lex Bouter - The Conversation

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