Coercion or compulsion? Rationales behind informal payments for education in Azerbaijan

Author(s) : Kazimkade, Elmina; Lepisto, Eric

Imprint : 2009

Collation : Pp.70–92

Series : European Education, vol. 40, no. 4 (Winter 2008–9)

Although informal payments are necessary for education systems in many countries, they prohibit education accessibility and equity in Eastern Europe and neighboring states. Exploring the rationales and the relationships is a promising approach for understanding corruption in education and ensuring educational equity. In this article, rationales for informal payments were divided according to types of social pressure and a distinction was drawn between coercive and compulsive influence. This article suggests that informal payments have utility in the post-Soviet context. This utility can be best explained by the notions of coercion and compulsion. Coercion means that schools encourage informal payments with the threat, implicit or explicit, that schools and education would falter. Compulsion is a culturally based, perceived need to make payments. This article examines the rationales for making informal payments within the dichotomy of coercion and compulsion. It then discusses implications and accountability in the context of social cohesion.

  • Corruption, Bribery, Educational quality, Parents
  • Azerbaijan