This cross-national study assesses the character and frequency of private informal payments made by families on behalf of their children attending primary and secondary schools in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Moldova, Slovakia, and Tajikistan.
These reports are a review six countries' legal and institutional framework for fighting corruption, in accordance with the framework provided by the Anti-Corruption Network for Transition Economies, based at the OECD.
Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable.
Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym