In Finland, The National Advisory Board on Research Ethics published a document "Good scientific practice and procedures for handling misconduct and fraud in science" in 2002. All universities have agreed to follow the exact procedures defined in the document.
The Ministry of Education and Youth (MET) has recently become more active in addressing academic corruption, and on January 18, 2007, an action plan to prevent and combat corruption in the education system was authorized in collaboration with the Center for Combating
Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable.
Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym
Rigged calls for tender, embezzlement of funds, illegal registration fees, academic fraud - there is no lack of empirical data illustrating the diverse forms that corruption can take in the education sector.