Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable.
Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym
Recent surveys suggest that leakage of funds from ministries of education to schools represent more than 80 per cent of the total sums allocated for non salary expenditures in some countries; bribes and payoffs in teacher recruitment and promotion tend to lower the quality of public school teache
This paper investigates the correlates of student performance in mathematics and dictation tests among schoolchildren in Indonesia. This is the first such study to use a new nationally representative sample of Indonesian primary-school students.
Suryadarma, Daniel; Suryahadi, Asep; Sumarto, Sudarno; Rogers, F. Halsey