This cross-national study assesses the character and frequency of private informal payments made by families on behalf of their children attending primary and secondary schools in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Moldova, Slovakia, and Tajikistan.
The Education Support Program (ESP) has published Education in a Hidden Marketplace: Monitoring of Private Tutoring, the result of the Monitoring Private Tutoring Project, initiated by ESP in close cooperation with the Network of Education Policy Centers.
Silova, Iveta; Budiene, Virginija; Bray, Mark; Zabulionis, Algirdas
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, some 25 countries began their dramatic transformation into market-based economies by liberalizing prices, dismantling the remaining instruments of Soviet-type central planning, and starting fundamental structural economic reforms.
Wolf, Thomas; Gürgen, Emine
Washington, D.C., IMF, 2000
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