The topics covered in the study include school admissions, teacher appointments, transfers and promotions, activities of school development societies (SDS), fees and payments, tuition classes and abuse of the district quota system.
Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable.
Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym
Rigged calls for tender, embezzlement of funds, illegal registration fees, academic fraud - there is no lack of empirical data illustrating the diverse forms that corruption can take in the education sector.
Recent surveys suggest that leakage of funds from ministries of education to schools represent more than 80 per cent of the total sums allocated for non salary expenditures in some countries; bribes and payoffs in teacher recruitment and promotion tend to lower the quality of public school teache