Recent surveys suggest that leakage of funds from ministries of education to schools represent more than 80 per cent of the total sums allocated for non salary expenditures in some countries; bribes and payoffs in teacher recruitment and promotion tend to lower the quality of public school teache
Private supplementary tutoring has long been a major phenomenon in some parts of East Asia, particularly Japan, the Republic of Korea and Taiwan. In recent decades it has grown significantly in both industrialized and less developed societies.
Paris, UNESCO, 2003
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