How can accountability deficits be addressed in innovative ways in the face of weak and ineffective formal state institutions? This paper analyses the role of civil society organizations in improving accountability by increasing transparency in service delivery.
Subsequent to the end of the communist system in 1990, Mongolia has established a democratic regime, and has been assessed as being relatively well governed. However, more recently, corruption has been worsening, despite the continuation of a democratic regime.
Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable.
Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym
In Europe and Central Asia, the radical shift in economic and political systems that occurred in most countries after 1900 made existing forms of corruption more visible and opened opportunities for new forms of corrupt practices.