Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable.
Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym
This paper comparatively analyses legislative ethics, focusing on: the role of the legislature in combating corruption, the need for effective ethics regime; codes of conduct; ethics rules and financial disclosure requirements; enforcement and education.
National democratic institute for international affairs (USA)