As evidenced by recently published articles, corruption has severely infected higher education worldwide. Through a global scan, this article first surveys examples of corruption in higher education in a few countries.
Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable.
Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym