This study analyses the issue of comparative corruption in the national higher education sectors in the United States and the Russian Federation. In both nations, higher education is a major part of public policy and constitutes a significant part of the public sector.
Advocacy and monitoring campaigns conducted by strong and capable civil society and mass media organizations can keep anticorruption issues high on the public agenda and can exert considerable pressure on government to implement transparency and accountability reforms
Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable.
Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym