Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable.
Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym
Rigged calls for tender, embezzlement of funds, illegal registration fees, academic fraud - there is no lack of empirical data illustrating the diverse forms that corruption can take in the education sector.
Hallak, Jacques; Poisson, Muriel
Paris, UNESCO, 2007
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