This cross-national study assesses the character and frequency of private informal payments made by families on behalf of their children attending primary and secondary schools in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Moldova, Slovakia, and Tajikistan.
Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable.
Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym
As the harmful effects of corruption on economic development, political stability and social welfare today are apparent throughout the world, combating corruption enjoys high priority among governments and societies throughout the Asia-Pacific region.