In this article, we explore affiliations of high-level public officials in East and South-East Europe and Central Asia with higher education institutions, which create a risk of undue influence because of conflict of interest.
This cross-national study assesses the character and frequency of private informal payments made by families on behalf of their children attending primary and secondary schools in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Moldova, Slovakia, and Tajikistan.
These reports are a review six countries' legal and institutional framework for fighting corruption, in accordance with the framework provided by the Anti-Corruption Network for Transition Economies, based at the OECD.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, some 25 countries began their dramatic transformation into market-based economies by liberalizing prices, dismantling the remaining instruments of Soviet-type central planning, and starting fundamental structural economic reforms.
Wolf, Thomas; Gürgen, Emine
Washington, D.C., IMF, 2000
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