Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable.
Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym
The Education Support Program (ESP) has published Education in a Hidden Marketplace: Monitoring of Private Tutoring, the result of the Monitoring Private Tutoring Project, initiated by ESP in close cooperation with the Network of Education Policy Centers.
Silova, Iveta; Budiene, Virginija; Bray, Mark; Zabulionis, Algirdas