Survey techniques to measure and explain corruption
This paper demonstrates that with appropriate survey methods and interview techniques, it is possible to collect quantitative micro-level data on corruption. Public expenditure tracking surveys, service provider surveys, and enterprise surveys are highlighted with several applications. While often broader in scope, these surveys permit measurement of corruption at the level of individual agents, such as schools, health clinics, or firms. They also permit the study of mechanisms responsible for corruption, including leakage of funds and bribery, as data on corruption can be combined with other data collected in these surveys. This paper is a product of the World Bank Public Services, Development Research Group, and is a part of a larger effort in the group to measure and explain corruption at micro level and to explore its effects on service delivery.