Grey areas in the higher education sector: legality versus corruptibility
In essence, this paper is a survey and offers general commentary on corruption in higher education. It defines corruption generally, helps to define corruption in higher education in the legal context, and discusses types of corruption in higher education by differentiating between three types of corruption: 1. abuse of academic integrity, 2. corruption in higher education per se, 3. corruption in the higher education sector-'. At the same time, this study looks into so-called grey areas, where acts that are commonly understood as corrupt are not immediately or explicitly qualified as illegal, and challenges the terms of "legality" and "corruptibility" in order to build a better understanding of whether all illegal acts that take place in higher education constitute acts of corruption. Additionally, this paper discusses perspectives on corruption, including legal, economic, social, and moral or ethical responsibility, analyzes records of selected legal cases devoted to corruption in higher education, and discusses trends and practices in the financial industry of educational loans.