Corruption in Slovakia: results of diagnostic surveys
This report presents the finding of a diagnostic study of corruption in Slovakia prepared at the request of the Government of the Slovak Republic by the World Bank and USAID. For the study, the survey research firm "Focus" was selected in a tender to administer questionnaires on perceptions and experiences with corruption to three distinct groups: households, enterprise managers, and public officials. The surveys reveal that corruption is common and affects all key sectors of the economy. Individual citizens were most affected in the social sectors, with a third indicating payment of bribes services like higher education. The public officials survey demonstrates that corruption is closely related to the quality of the institutions of public administration. The bodies with the lowest levels of corruption were those in which the lines of internal communications were clear, administrative rules were well-implemented, personnel decisions were based on merit rather than connections or corruption, and the organization's mission was widely understood by staff. The level of meritocracy is particularly strong for explaining levels of corruption. The surveys also make clear that while most public officials at all levels of government support public sector reforms, they are relatively more concerned about the practical implementation of the reforms.