Although quantitative measurement of corruption is difficult, there are several reliable measures in use. ETICO provides easy access to the data produced by these measures developed by worldwide institutions (see table below).

Data sourceMeasures of corruptionData available
Transparency International (TI)

Global Corruption Barometer (GCB):

  • GCB index: Perceived level of corruption in the education sector (1  = not at all corrupt ; 5 = extremely corrupt)
  • Percentage of persons having paid a bribe in education during the past 12 months grouped by income, age, and aggregated at the global and national level
  • The latest edition measures corruption levels in primary and secondary education on the one hand, and vocational education on the other

Annual survey results published online since 2003.  The latest series of reports from 2015/16 reflects responses of more than 100,000 people in 100 countries

World Bank
  • PETS: Assessment of leakage of public funds (such as school grants, teacher salaries, etc.)
  • QSDS: Assessment of ‘leakage of service’ (such as teacher absenteeism and ghost teachers)

PETS/QSDS studies conducted in the education sector since 1996 for 24 countries.

Download country reports

For more information on PETS/QSDS refer to ETICO Page on Diagnostics tools.



Consult the results of the GCB 2015/16

Across the 42 European countries surveyed, 17 percent of respondents had paid a bribe for primary or secondary education, compared to 9 per cent for vocational education