Social norms can reduce the costs of corrupt behavior and push a society toward a high-corruption equilibrium, but what determines individual attitudes toward corruption? How does acceptance vary across different types of corrupt behavior?
Increasing costs of running educational institutions and funding educational programs, coupled with decreasing government subsidies to support such costs, have made privatisation and marketisation of higher education a common phenomenon throughout the world.
This cross-national study assesses the character and frequency of private informal payments made by families on behalf of their children attending primary and secondary schools in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Moldova, Slovakia, and Tajikistan.
Degree mills are and will continue to be a significant international problem for students, employers, the public, legitimate providers of higher education and accreditation/quality assurance and national governments.