Corruption is at the core of weak governance. In the education sector, corruption is a threat to the quality of and access to education. Although the diagnosis is straightforward, effective reforms are more difficult to implement.
This cross-national study assesses the character and frequency of private informal payments made by families on behalf of their children attending primary and secondary schools in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Moldova, Slovakia, and Tajikistan.
Rigged calls for tender, embezzlement of funds, illegal registration fees, academic fraud - there is no lack of empirical data illustrating the diverse forms that corruption can take in the education sector.