The Effects of corruption on administrative performance: illustrations from developing countries
The practice whereby some public money is illicitly diverted for private gain is present to some degree in all societies. Developing countries' particular circumstances - rapid economic and social change, strong kinship and ethnic ties, new institutions, overlapping and sometimes conflicting views about what is proper public behaviour - appear to contribute to corruption's saliency. According to much of the data examined covering countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, corruption has a deleterious, often devastating effect on administrative performance and economic and political development, for example corroding public confidence, perverting institutions' processes and even goals, favouring the privileged and powerful few, and stimulating illegal capital export or use of nonrational criteria in public decisions. Corruption counteraction measures may range from commissions of inquiry, ombudsmen to investigate citizen complaints, courses and seminars, to simplification of administrative and financial procedures. However, their success will depend of the gradual creation of a political and public climate favouring impartiality and on the wisdom of specific governmental actions.